You can display list of supported tools by running:
git mergetool --tool-help
You should see p4merge in either available or valid list. If not, please update your git.
If p4merge was listed as available, it is in your PATH and you only have to set merge.tool:
git config --global merge.tool p4merge
If it was listed as valid, you have to define mergetool.p4merge.path in addition to merge.tool:
git config --global mergetool.p4merge.path c:/Users/my-login/AppData/Local/Perforce/p4merge.exe
The above is an example path when p4merge was installed for the current user, not system-wide (does not need admin rights or UAC elevation)
Although ~ should expand to current user’s home directory (so in theory the path should be
~/AppData/Local/Perforce/p4merge.exe), this did not work for me
Even better would have been to take advantage of an environment variable (e.g.
$LOCALAPPDATA/Perforce/p4merge.exe), git does not seem to be expanding environment variables for paths (if you know how to get this working, please let me know or update this answer)